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Understanding AI and Cognitive Systems – a Perspective on Its Potential and Challenges While Putting Them to Work with People

6.0 Discussion and Conclusion

In this article, we reviewed the background on AI and Cognitive Systems and articulated the considerations for building an intelligent system: business value, access to data, selection of AI techniques and connecting to impact on people. Further, we divided AI systems into levels based on their capabilities to take decision and highlighted issues is testing them. We explored potential of AI in the case studies of self-driving car and health.

As more AI techniques are being used to tackle societal problems, practitioners realized that ethical guidance is needed [37]. The professional bodies in ICT, who long had an ethical code of behavior [20], have begun to take note of the ethical responsibility AI-based systems should demonstrate when working with people [21] [22]. This includes system being able to given an explanation, show evolution of data, be auditable and accountable. The new wave of technical innovations will be in implementing and scaling such guidelines.
In conclusion, AI is an exciting area which, despite being around for decades, is getting revolutionized with new trends like deep learning. As pointed recently [38], it has traditionally worked well away from humans, like in space, or in conflict with humans, like games. However, AI has much to offer working as partner with humans. It is relevant globally and but is of particular relevance to challenges of a developing country like India [23].

Brief Biography

Biplav Srivastava is a Research Staff Member & Master Inventor at IBM Research and an ACM Distinguished Scientist and Distinguished Speaker. With over two decades of research experience in Artificial Intelligence, Services Computing and Sustainability, Biplav’s current focus is on promoting goal-oriented human-machine collaboration via natural interfaces using domain and user models, learning and planning. Biplav’s work has lead to many science firsts and high-impact commercial innovations (up to $B+), 100+ papers and 40+ US patents issued. He co-organized the workshop track at IJCAI 2016, has co-organized over 30 workshops and given 5 tutorials at leading AI conferences. He has been runing the “AI in India” Google group since 2010. More details are at: http://researcher.watson.ibm.com/researcher/view.php?person=us-biplavs




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[2] Cognitive computing definition, http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/cognitive-computing

[3] Artificial Intelligence definition, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artificial_intelligence

[4] AI Topics, http://aitopics.org/

[5] Eliza, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ELIZA

[6] Tay, https://www.tay.ai/

[7] Tay back, http://time.com/4275980/tay-twitter-microsoft-back/

[8[Autonomic computing, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autonomic_computing

[9]Biplav Srivastava, AutoSeek: A Method to Identify Candidate Automation Steps in a Service Delivery Process, In 10th IFIP/IEEE International Symposium on Integrated Network Management (IM 2007), May 2007, Munich, Germany.

[10]Michael Schrage, How to Give a Robot a Job Review, https://hbr.org/2016/03/how-to-give-a-robot-a-job-review, March 2016

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[12]John E Kelly, Computing, cognition and the future of knowing, http://www.research.ibm.com/software/IBMResearch/multimedia/Computing_Cognition_WhitePaper.pdf

[13] UN’s Millenium Development Goals, http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/

[14] Challenges to Smart City Initiatives in India, https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/challenges-smart-city-initiatives-india-biplav-srivastava

[15] Ethics, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethics

[16]Kanna Rajan, Advancing Autonomous Operations in the Field From Outer to Inner Space, Youtube video: https://youtu.be/MSK9Do7AQf0

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[19] Tesla’s Self-Driving System Cleared in Deadly Crash, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/01/19/business/tesla-model-s-autopilot-fatal-crash.html

[20]ACM Code of Ethics, https://www.acm.org/about-acm/code-of-ethics

[21] ACM Seven Principles to Foster Algorithmic Transparency and Accountability, http://www.acm.org/media-center/2017/january/usacm-statement-on-algorithmic-accountability

[22] IEEE’s Global Initiative for Ethical Considerations in Artificial Intelligence and Autonomous Systems, http://standards.ieee.org/develop/indconn/ec/autonomous_systems.html

[23] Shivaram Kalyanakrishnan, Rahul Panicker, Sarayu Natarajan and Shreya Rao, Opportunities and Challenges for Artificial Intelligence in India, AIES 2018, http://bit.ly/2o9Fekj

[24]Jason Ellis, Biplav Srivastava, Rachel K. E. Bellamy and Andy Aaron, Water Advisor – A Data-Driven, Multi-Modal, Contextual Assistant to Help with Water Usage Decisions, AAAI 2018, V
Video – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z4x44sxC3zA; Paper – http://jellis.org/work/water-aaai2018-demo.pdf

[25] Jeffrey O. Kephart, Victor C. Dibia, Jason Ellis, Biplav Srivastava, Kartik Talamadupula and Mishal Dholakia A Cognitive Assistant for Visualizing and Analyzing Exoplanets, AAAI 2018, Video – http://ibm.biz/tyson-demo; Paper – http://jellis.org/work/exoplanets-aaai2018-demo.pdf

[26] AI Magazine Special Issue on Cognitive Systems, Vol 38, No. 4, 2017, At: https://www.aaai.org/ojs/index.php/aimagazine/issue/view/220/showToc

[27] Stuart Russell and Peter Norvig, Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach, 3rd Edition, 2015, http://aima.cs.berkeley.edu/

[28] Biplav Srivastava, AI for Smart City Innovations with Open Data, Tutorial at IJCAI 2015, Buenos Aires, Argentina, July 2015. Slides are at: http://www.slideshare.net/biplavsrivastava/ai-for-smart-city-innovations-with-open-data-tutorial

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[30] Judea Pearl, Theoretical Impediments to Machine Learning With Seven Sparks from the Causal Revolution, http://ftp.cs.ucla.edu/pub/stat_ser/r475.pdf. 2017

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[33] Data Portals, an online catalog of open data, http://dataportals.org/portal/datacatalogs-org

[34] India’s 2017 Health Care Policy, http://www.mohfw.nic.in/index1.php?lang=1&level=1&sublinkid=6471&lid=4270

[35] Situation Analyses, Backdrop to National Health Policy 2017, https://mohfw.gov.in/sites/default/files/71275472221489753307.pdf

[36] Grzegorz Przybycien, Can Artificial Intelligence on Facebook Messenger persuade students to develop regular exercise habit? Persuasive design in digital marketing pilot study of Jane.ai chatbot, MBA Thesis, Univ of Warwick, 2017, at https://www.dropbox.com/s/pxfgcwuy1uwjjkz/jane.ai%20dissertation%20ebook.pdf?dl=0.

[37] Aylin Caliskan, Joanna J. Bryson, Arvind Narayanan, Semantics derived automatically from language corpora contain human-like biases, Science, 2017.

[38] Subbarao Kambhampati, Challenges of Human-Aware AI Systems (AAAI 2018 Presidential Address), 2018, At: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hb7CWilXjag

[39] Dyllan Furness, The chatbot will see you now: AI may play doctor in the future of healthcare, 2016, https://www.digitaltrends.com/cool-tech/artificial-intelligence-chatbots-are-revolutionizing-healthcare/

[40]J. O. Gutierrez-Garcia and E. López-Neri, “Cognitive Computing: A Brief Survey and Open Research Challenges,” 2015, 3rd International Conference on Applied Computing and Information Technology/2nd International Conference on Computational Science and Intelligence, Okayama, 2015, pp. 328-333.


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